A Comparative Review of the Inclusive Education across Canada, the United States and Turkey

Proposing a novel content validity technique for STEM and educational sciences


  • Nazli Uygun Emil Michigan State University
  • Mustafa Yildiz Amasya University, Turkey
  • Gunkut Mesci Giresun University, Turkey


Inclusive Education, Diversity/Equity/Inclusion, STEM, Validity


This study investigates the diversity, equity, and inclusive education documents with a perspective of STEM learning from three countries as Canada, the United States and Turkey. Curriculum and policy documents across these countries were reviewed and analyzed to make comparisons on the inclusive education approaches of Canada, the United States and Turkey. Review analysis was conducted as the way of a content analysis method. Results indicated that Turkey and Canada display the highest similarity based on the polycorric correlation computations ( poly. r. = .57) , following the similarity between Canada and the United States (poly.r. = .55) , and the least similar counties were the United States and Turkey (poly.r. = .52). However, the differences between three countries were statistically small due to the moderate level effects sizes shared for each pairwise comparison, indicating: Canada, the United States and Turkey only slightly differ in STEM curriculum inclusion and statistical similarity amongst them is attaining with the consideration of the numerically resembling polycorric correlation and effect size values.